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By Hubert Moolman - - June 18, Free Gold-Eagle Newsletter! Visit us on Facebook. Follow Us on Twitter. Adults of both sexes have similar plumage and are primarily dark brown, with some grey on the inner wing and tail, and a paler, typically golden colour on the back of the crown and nape that gives the species its common name.
Juvenile golden eagles are similar to adults but tend to be darker, appearing black on the back especially in East Asia. They have a less faded colour.
Young birds are white for about two-thirds of their tail length, ending with a broad, black band. Compared to the relatively consistently white tail, the white patches on the wing are extremely variable; some juveniles have almost no white visible.
Juveniles of less than 12 months of age tend to have the most white in their plumage. By the third summer, the upper-wing coverts are largely replaced by dark brown feathers, although not all feathers moult at once which leaves many juvenile birds with a grizzled pattern.
The tail follows a similar pattern of maturation to the wings. This species moults gradually beginning in March or April until September or October each year.
Moulting usually decreases in winter. Moult of the contour feathers begins on the head and neck region and progresses along the feather tracts in a general front-to-back direction.
Feathers on head, neck, back and scapulars may be replaced annually. With large feathers of the wing and tail, moult begins with the innermost feathers and proceeds outwards in a straightforward manner known as "descendant" moult.
While many accipitrids are not known for their strong voices, golden eagles have a particular tendency for silence, even while breeding.
The voice of the golden eagle is considered weak, high, and shrill, has been called "quite pathetic" and "puppy-like", and seems incongruous with the formidable size and nature of the species.
In western Montana , nine distinct calls were noted: a chirp , a seeir , a pssa , a skonk , a cluck , a wonk , a honk and a hiss. Golden eagles are sometimes considered the best fliers among eagles and perhaps among all raptorial birds.
Although less agile and manoeuvrable, the golden eagle is apparently quite the equal and possibly even the superior of the peregrine falcon 's stooping and gliding speeds.
Size readily distinguishes this species from most other raptors when it is seen well. Most other raptors are considerably smaller.
Buteo hawks, which are perhaps most similar to the golden eagle in structure among the species outside of the "booted eagle" group, are often counted among the larger very common raptors.
However, a mid-sized Buteo is dwarfed by a golden eagle, as an adult female eagle has about double the wingspan and about five times the weight.
Buteos are also usually distinctly paler below, although some species occur in dark morphs which can be darker than a golden eagle.
In North America, the golden eagle may be confused with the turkey vulture from a great distance, as it is a large species that, like the golden eagle, often flies with a pronounced dihedral.
The turkey vulture can be distinguished by its less controlled, forceful flying style they frequently rock back and forth unsteadily in even moderate winds and its smaller, thinner body, much smaller head and, at closer range, its slaty black-brown colour and silvery wing secondaries.
The tail of the golden eagle is longer on average than those of Haliaeetus eagles, appearing to be two or three times the length of the head in soaring flight, whereas in the other eagles the head is often more than twice the length of the tail.
Haliaeetus eagles are often heavily streaked in their juvenile phase. Juvenile golden eagles can have large patches of white on their wings and tail that are quite different from the random, sometimes large and splotchy-looking distribution of white typical of juvenile Haliaeetus.
Distinguishing the golden eagle from other Aquila eagles in Eurasia is more difficult. Identification may rely on the golden eagle's relatively long tail and patterns of white or grey on the wings and tail.
Unlike golden eagles, other Aquila eagles do not generally fly in a pronounced dihedral. At close range, the golden to rufous nape-shawl of the golden eagle is distinctive from other Aquila.
Most other Aquila eagles have darker plumage, although the smaller tawny eagle is often paler than the golden eagle the overlap in range is verified only in Bale Mountains , Ethiopia.
Among Eurasian Aquila , the adult eastern imperial and Spanish imperial eagle come closest to reaching the size of golden eagles, but both are distinguished by their longer necks, flatter wings in flight, white markings on their shoulder forewing-coverts, paler cream-straw coloured nape patch and generally darker colouration.
Juvenile imperial eagles are much paler overall caramel-cream in the Spanish; cream and tawny streaks in the eastern and are not likely to be confused.
The only species in the genus Aquila that exceeds the golden eagle in average wingspan and length is the wedge-tailed eagle of Australasia ; however, the wedge-tailed eagle is a slightly less heavy bird.
This species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 10th edition of Systema Naturae as Falco chrysaetos.
The type locality was given simply as "Europa"; it was later fixed to Sweden. It was moved to the new genus Aquila by French ornithologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in The golden eagle is part of a broad group of raptors called "booted eagles" which are defined by the feature that all species have feathering over their tarsus, unlike many other accipitrids which have bare legs.
Included in this group are all species described as "hawk eagles" including the genera Spizaetus and Nisaetus , as well as assorted monotypical genera such as Oroaetus , Lophaetus , Stephanoaetus , Polemaetus , Lophotriorchis and Ictinaetus.
The genus Aquila is distributed across every continent but for South America and Antarctica. Up to 20 species have been classified in the genus, but more recently the taxonomic placement of some of the traditional species has been questioned.
Traditionally, the Aquila eagles have been grouped superficially as largish, mainly brownish or dark-colored booted eagles that vary little in transition from their juvenile to their adult plumages.
Genetic research has recently indicated the golden eagle is included in a clade with Verreaux's eagle in Africa as well as the Gurney's eagle A.
This identification of this particular clade has long been suspected based on similar morphological characteristics amongst these large-bodied species.
This genus has recently been eliminated by many authorities and is now occasionally also included in Aquila , although not all ornithological unions have followed this suit in this re-classification.
There are six extant subspecies of golden eagle that differ slightly in size and plumage. Individuals of any of the subspecies are somewhat variable and the differences between the subspecies are clinal , especially in terms of body size.
Other than these characteristics, there is little variation across the range of the species. The larger Middle Pleistocene golden eagles of France and possibly elsewhere are referred to a paleosubspecies Aquila chrysaetos bonifacti , and the huge specimens of the Late Pleistocene of Liko Cave Crete have been named Aquila chrysaetos simurgh Weesie, Golden eagles are fairly adaptable in habitat but often reside in areas with a few shared ecological characteristics.
They are best suited to hunting in open or semi-open areas and search them out year-around. Native vegetation seems to be attractive to them and they typically avoid developed areas of any type from urban to agricultural as well as heavily forested regions.
In desolate areas e. However, they are not solely tied to high elevations and can breed in lowlands if the local habitats are suitable.
Below are more detailed description of habitats occupied by golden eagles in both continents where they occur. In the Arctic fringe of Eurasia, golden eagles occur along the edge of the tundra and the taiga from the Kola peninsula to Anadyr in eastern Siberia , nesting in forests and hunting over nearby arctic heathland.
Typical vegetation is stunted, fragmented larch woodland merging into low birch - willow scrub and various heathland.
In the rocky, wet, windy maritime climate of Scotland , Ireland , and western Scandinavia , the golden eagle dwells in mountains. These areas include upland grasslands , blanket bog , and sub-Arctic heaths but also fragmented woodland and woodland edge , including boreal forests.
In Western Europe, golden eagle habitat is dominated by open, rough grassland, heath and bogs, and rocky ridges, spurs, crags , scree , slopes and grand plateaux.
In Sweden , Finland , the Baltic States , Belarus and almost the entire distribution in Russia all the way to the Pacific Ocean , golden eagles occur sparsely in lowland taiga forest.
These areas are dominated by stands of evergreens such as pine , larch and spruce , occasionally supplemented by birch and alder stands in southern Scandinavia and the Baltic States.
This is largely marginal country for golden eagles and they occur where tree cover is thin and abuts open habitat. Golden eagle taiga habitat usually consists of extensive peatland formations caused by poorly drained soils.
In central Europe, golden eagles today occur almost exclusively in the major mountain ranges, such as the Pyrenees , Alps , Carpathians , and the Caucasus.
Here, the species nests near the tree line and hunt subalpine and alpine pastures , grassland and heath above.
Golden eagles also occur in moderately mountainous habitat along the Mediterranean Sea , from the Iberian Peninsula and the Atlas Mountains in Morocco , to Greece , Turkey and Kurdistan.
This area is characterized by low mountains, Mediterranean maquis vegetation , and sub-temperate open woodland.
The local pine - oak vegetation, with a variety of Sclerophyllous shrubs are well-adapted to prolonged summer droughts.
From Kurdistan and the southern Caspian Sea to the foothills of the Hindu Kush Mountains in Afghanistan , the typical golden eagle habitat is temperate desert-like mountain ranges surrounded by steppe landscapes interspersed with forest.
Here the climate is colder and more continental than around the Mediterranean. Golden eagles occupy the alpine ranges from the Altai Mountains and the Pamir Mountains to Tibet , in the great Himalayan massif , and Xinjiang , China , where they occupy the Tien Shan range.
In Tibet, golden eagles inhabit high ridges and passes in the Lhasa River watershed , where they regularly joins groups of soaring Himalayan vultures Gyps himalayensis.
The golden eagle occurs in mountains from the Adrar Plateau in Mauritania to northern Yemen and Oman where the desert habitat is largely bereft of vegetation but offers many rocky plateaus to support both the eagles and their prey.
In Israel , their habitat is mainly rocky slopes and wide wadi areas, chiefly in desert and to a lesser extent in semi-desert and Mediterranean climates, extending to open areas.
In Ethiopia's Bale Mountains , where the vegetation is more lush and the climate is clearly less arid than in Northeastern Africa, the golden eagle occupies verdant mountains.
The biomes occupied by golden eagles are roughly concurrent with those of Eurasia. In western and northern Alaska and northern Canada to the Ungava Peninsula in Quebec , the eagles occupy the Arctic fringe of North America the species does not range into the true high Arctic tundra , where open canopy gives way to dwarf-shrub heathland with cottongrass and tussock tundra.
In land-locked areas of the sub-Arctic, golden eagles are by far the largest raptor. From the Alaska Range to Washington and Oregon , it is often found in high mountains above the tree line or on bluffs and cliffs along river valleys below the tree line.
In the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in the United States are plains and prairies where golden eagles are widespread, especially where there's a low human presence.
Here, grassland on low rolling hills and flat plains are typical, interrupted only by cottonwood stands around river valleys and wetlands where the eagles may build their nests.
Golden eagles also occupy the desert-like Great Basin from southern Idaho to northern Arizona and New Mexico.
In this habitat, trees are generally absent other than junipers with vegetation being dominated by sagebrush Artemisia and other low shrub species.
Although the vegetation varies a bit more, similar habitat is occupied by golden eagles in Mexico. The golden eagles here often nest in chaparral and oak woodland, oak savanna and grassland amongst low rolling hill typified by diverse vegetation.
Until , a pair of golden eagles were still known to nest in Maine but they are now believed to be absent as a breeding bird from the Eastern United States.
Though they do regularly nest in the marsh-like peatland of the boreal forest, golden eagles are not generally associated with wetlands and, in fact, they can be found near some of the most arid spots on earth.
In the wintering population of Eastern United States, however, they are often associated with steep river valleys, reservoirs, and marshes in inland areas as well as estuarine marshlands, barrier islands, managed wetlands, sounds, and mouths of major river systems in coastal areas.
These wetlands are attractive due to a dominance of open vegetation, large concentrations of prey, and the general absence of human disturbance.
Golden eagles usually hunt during daylight hours, but were recorded hunting from one hour before sunrise to one hour after sunset during the breeding season in southwestern Idaho.
Despite the dramatic ways in which they attain food and interact with raptors of their own and other species, the daily life of golden eagles is often rather uneventful.
Although usually highly solitary outside of the bond between breeding pairs, exceptionally cold weather in winter may cause eagles to put their usual guard down and perch together.
The largest known congregation of golden eagles was observed on an extremely cold winter's night in eastern Idaho when individuals were observed perched closely along a line of 85 power poles.
Most populations of golden eagles are sedentary, but the species is actually a partial migrant. Golden eagles are very hardy species, being well adapted to cold climates, however they cannot abide declining available food sources in the northern stretches of their range.
Further east, conditions are too harsh for even wintering territorial adults. The flat, relatively open landscapes in these regions hold relatively few resident breeding golden eagles.
At Mount Lorette in Alberta , approximately 4, golden eagles may pass during the fall, the largest recorded migration of golden eagles on earth.
Adults who bred in northeastern Hudson Bay area of Canada reached their wintering grounds, which range from central Michigan to southern Pennsylvania to northeastern Alabama , in 26 to 40 days, with arrival dates from November to early December.
In southwestern Canada, they leave their wintering grounds by 6 April to 8 May the mean being 21 April ; in southwestern Idaho, wintering birds leave from 20 March to 13 April mean of 29 March ; and in the Southwestern United States , wintering birds may depart by early March.
Territoriality is believed to be the primary cause of interactions and confrontations between non-paired golden eagles. Golden eagles maintain some of the largest known home ranges or territories of any bird species but there is much variation of home range size across the range, possibly dictated by food abundance and habitat preference.
The invader often responds by rolling over and presenting talons to the aggressor. Rarely, the two eagles will lock talons and tumble through the air; sometimes fall several revolutions and in some cases even tumble to the ground before releasing their grip.
They then often engage in a similar posture with wings spread wide and oriented toward the threat; sometimes rocking back on tail and even flopping over onto the back with talons extended upward as defense.
Such behavior may be accompanied by wing slap against the threatening intruder.The American Gold Eagle is an official gold bullion coin of the United States. Authorized under the Gold Bullion Coin Act of , it was first released by the United States Mint in The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern testomaster-revisao.com is the most widely distributed species of testomaster-revisao.com all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. The value of Gold Eagle Coins is known around the world, as these Gold coins are investment-staples in most portfolios. Design of the American Eagle The American Eagle Gold coin design is based on the famous Saint-Gaudens Lady Liberty design that appeared on the final Gold Double Eagle. Replacing the Liberty Gold coin in , the Saint-Gaudens. American Gold Eagle Coins were authorized for production by the United States Congress with passage of the Gold Bullion Coin Act of Under the terms of legislation, the program was to contain four different weights in total (1 oz, ½ oz, ¼ oz, 1/10 oz) and include two different versions initially (bullion and proof). For superior car maintenance products and tips on prolonging the life of your vehicle, boat, RV or smaller engines, check out Gold Eagle today!.